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The English equivalent "theology" Theologie, Teologye had evolved by Definition[ edit ] Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity";  Richard Hooker defined "theology" in English as "the science of things divine ".
The study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religionand increasingly through the psychology of religion and neurotheology.
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Theology then aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, and to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives. Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument experientialphilosophicalethnographichistoricaland others to help understandexplaintest, critiquedefend or promote any myriad of religious topics.
As in philosophy of ethics and case lawarguments often assume the existence of previously resolved questions, and develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations.
The study of theology may help a theologian more deeply understand their own religious tradition another religious tradition,  or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition.
Theology may be used to propagate reform,  or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare challenge e. Theology might also help a theologian to address some present situation or need through a religious tradition,  or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world.
There, however, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a slightly different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy.
It is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching, that the term passed into English in the fourteenth century,  although it could also be used in the narrower sense found in Boethius and the Greek patristic authors, to mean rational study of the essential nature of God — a discourse now sometimes called theology proper.
They suggest the term is less appropriate in religious contexts that are organized differently religions without a single deity, or that deny that such subjects can be studied logically. Jewish theology is linked to ethics and therefore has implications for how one behaves. Christian theology is the study of Christian belief and practice.
Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument. Theology might be undertaken to help the theologian better understand Christian tenets, to make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions, to defend Christianity against objections and criticism, to facilitate reforms in the Christian church, to assist in the propagation of Christianity, to draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to address some present situation or need, or for a variety of other reasons.
To find an equivalent for 'theology' in the Christian sense it is necessary to have recourse to several disciplines, and to the usul al-fiqh as much as to kalam. Gardet  Hinduism[ edit ] Within Hindu philosophythere is a tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God termed " Brahman ", Paramatma and Bhagavan in some schools of Hindu thought and of the Atman soul.
The Sanskrit word for the various schools of Hindu philosophy is Darshana meaning "view" or "viewpoint".
Vaishnava theology has been a subject of study for many devotees, philosophers and scholars in India for centuries. A large part of its study lies in classifying and organizing the manifestations of thousands of gods and their aspects.
In recent decades the study of Hinduism has also been taken up by a number of academic institutions in Europe, such as the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and Bhaktivedanta College. Krishnology Buddhism[ edit ] Some academic inquiries within Buddhismdedicated to the investigation of a Buddhist understanding of the world, prefer the designation Buddhist philosophy to the term Buddhist theology, since Buddhism lacks the same conception of a theos.
Jose Ignacio Cabezon, who argues that the use of "theology" is appropriate, can only do so, he says, because "I take theology not to be restricted to discourse on God I take 'theology' not to be restricted to its etymological meaning.Level 4 teaches high-intermediate students to write various genres of academic essays.
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