A large majority of those writing on life's meaning deem talk of it centrally to indicate a positive final value that an individual's life can exhibit. That is, comparatively few believe either that a meaningful life is a merely neutral quality, or that what is of key interest is the meaning of the human species or universe as a whole for discussions focused on the latter, see Edwards ; Munitz ; Seachris Most in the field have ultimately wanted to know whether and how the existence of one of us over time has meaning, a certain property that is desirable for its own sake. Beyond drawing the distinction between the life of an individual and that of a whole, there has been very little discussion of life as the logical bearer of meaning.
Jeremy Bentham The origins of utilitarianism can be traced back as far as Epicurusbut, as a school of thought, it is credited to Jeremy Bentham who found that "nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure", then, from that moral insight, deriving the Rule of Utility: He defined the meaning of life as the " greatest happiness principle ".
Jeremy Bentham 's foremost proponent was James Milla significant philosopher in his day, and father of John Stuart Mill. The younger Mill was educated per Bentham's principles, including transcribing Meaning of life human 2 essay summarizing much of his father's work. Friedrich Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world, and especially human existence, of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, and essential value; succinctly, nihilism is the process of "the devaluing of the highest values".
To Martin Heideggernihilism is the movement whereby " being " is forgotten, and is transformed into value, in other words, the reduction of being to exchange value.
If God, as the supra-sensory ground and goal, of all reality, is dead; if the supra-sensory world of the Ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory, and above it, its vitalizing and up-building power, then nothing more remains to which Man can cling, and by which he can orient himself.
Camus writes of value-nihilists such as Meursault but also of values in a nihilistic world, that people can instead strive to be "heroic nihilists", living with dignity in the face of absurdity, living with "secular saintliness", fraternal solidarity, and rebelling against and transcending the world's indifference.
The knowledge disclosed by modern science has effectively rewritten the relationship of humankind to the natural world. Advances in medicine and technology have freed humans from significant limitations and ailments of previous eras;  and philosophy—particularly following the linguistic turn —has altered how the relationships people have with themselves and each other are conceived.
Questions about the meaning of life have also seen radical changes, from attempts to reevaluate human existence in biological and scientific terms as in pragmatism and logical positivism to efforts to meta-theorize about meaning-making as a personal, individual-driven activity existentialismsecular humanism.
Pragmatism Pragmatism originated in the lateth-century US, concerning itself mostly with truthand positing that "only in struggling with the environment" do data, and derived theories, have meaning, and that consequences, like utility and practicality, are also components of truth.
Moreover, pragmatism posits that anything useful and practical is not always true, arguing that what most contributes to the most human good in the long course is true. In practice, theoretical claims must be practically verifiable, i. Pragmatic philosophers suggest that the practical, useful understanding of life is more important than searching for an impractical abstract truth about life.
William James argued that truth could be made, but not sought. Philosophical theism Theists believe God created the universe and that God had a purpose in doing so.
Theists also hold the view that humans find their meaning and purpose for life in God's purpose in creating. Theists further hold that if there were no God to give life ultimate meaning, value and purpose, then life would be absurd. According to existentialism, each man and each woman creates the essence meaning of their life; life is not determined by a supernatural god or an earthly authority, one is free.
As such, one's ethical prime directives are action, freedom, and decision, thus, existentialism opposes rationalism and positivism. In seeking meaning to life, the existentialist looks to where people find meaning in life, in course of which using only reason as a source of meaning is insufficient; this gives rise to the emotions of anxiety and dreadfelt in considering one's free willand the concomitant awareness of death.
According to Jean-Paul Sartreexistence precedes essence ; the essence of one's life arises only after one comes to existence. One can live meaningfully free of despair and anxiety in an unconditional commitment to something finite, and devotes that meaningful life to the commitment, despite the vulnerability inherent to doing so.
Salvation, deliverance, and escape from suffering are in aesthetic contemplation, sympathy for others, and asceticism. Accordingly, he saw nihilism "all that happens is meaningless" as without goals.
He stated that asceticism denies one's living in the world; stated that values are not objective facts, that are rationally necessary, universally binding commitments: For to hope in the possibility of help, not to speak of help by virtue of the absurd, that for God all things are possible—no, that he will not do.
And as for seeking help from any other—no, that he will not do for all the world; rather than seek help he would prefer to be himself—with all the tortures of hell, if so it must be. As beings looking for meaning in a meaningless world, humans have three ways of resolving the dilemma.
Suicide or, "escaping existence": Both Kierkegaard and Camus dismiss the viability of this option.2) To search for the meaning of life; and. 3) To share an intimate connection with humankind: the notion of love.
Humans are animals with an instinct for survival. At a basic level, this survival requires food, drink, rest and procreation. In this way, the meaning of life could be to continue the process of evolution. 1. The Meaning of “Meaning” One part of the field of life's meaning consists of the systematic attempt to clarify what people mean when they ask in virtue of what life has meaning.
What makes a human life have meaning or significance is not the mere living of a life, but reflecting on the living of a life.
Even the most reflective among us get caught up in pursuing ends and goals. I can truly connect with your essay man. I am myself a constant searcher of meaning, and Albert Camus I beliece once said that human is a meaning-making machine trapped in a meaningless universe.
Hamlet and Human Life Essay Literature December 1st, Hamlet, An Enigma In Play. Hamlet is Shakespeare’s longest play and among the most powerful and influential tragedies in English literature.  Humanist views of the meaning of life Main article: Humanism According to humanism the human race came to be by reproducing in a progression of unguided evolution as an integral part of nature, which is self-existing./5(1).