Hine was born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. He studied sociology at Chicago and New York universities, becoming a teacher, then took up photography as a means of expressing his social concerns. His first photo essay featured Ellis Island immigrants.
History of labour law Labour law arose in parallel with the Industrial Revolution as the relationship between worker and employer changed from small-scale production studios to large-scale factories. Workers sought better conditions and the right to join or avoid joining a labour unionwhile employers sought a more predictable, flexible and less costly workforce.
The state of labour law at any one time is therefore both the product of, and a component of struggles between various social forces.
As England was the first country to industrialise, it was also the first to face the often appalling consequences of industrial revolution in a less regulated economic framework.
Over the course of the late 18th and early to midth century the foundation for modern labour law was slowly laid, as some of the more egregious aspects Labor law essay working conditions were steadily ameliorated through legislation.
This was largely achieved through the concerted pressure from social reformersnotably Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesburyand others. Child labour[ edit ] A serious outbreak of fever in in cotton mills near Manchester drew widespread public opinion against the use of children in dangerous conditions.
This was the first, albeit modest, step towards the protection of labour. The act limited working hours to twelve a day and abolished night work. It required the provision of a basic level of education for all apprentices, as well as adequate sleeping accommodation and clothing.
The rapid industrialisation of manufacturing at the turn of the 19th century led to a rapid increase in child employment, and public opinion was steadily made aware of the terrible conditions these children were forced to endure. The Factory Act of was the outcome of the efforts of the industrialist Robert Owen and prohibited child labour under nine years of age and limited the working day to twelve.
A great milestone in labour law was reached with the Factory Act ofwhich limited the employment of children under eighteen years Labor law essay age, prohibited all night work and, crucially, provided for inspectors to enforce the law.
Pivotal in the campaigning for and the securing of this legislation were Michael Sadler and the Earl of Shaftesbury. This act was an important step forward, in that it mandated skilled inspection of workplaces and a rigorous enforcement of the law by an independent governmental body.
A lengthy campaign to limit the working day to ten hours was led by Shaftesbury, and included support from the Anglican Church. From the midth century, attention was first paid to the plight of working conditions for the workforce in general.
Insystematic reporting of fatal accidents was made compulsory, and basic safeguards for health, life and limb in the mines were put in place from Further regulations, relating to ventilation, fencing of disused shafts, signalling standards, and proper gauges and valves for steam-boilers and related machinery were also set down.
A series of further Acts, in and extended the legal provisions and strengthened safety provisions. Steady development of the coal industry, increasing association among miners, and increased scientific knowledge paved the way for the Coal Mines Act ofwhich extended the legislation to similar industries.
The same Act included the first comprehensive code of regulation to govern legal safeguards for health, life and limb. The presence of a more certified and competent management and increased levels of inspection were also provided for. By the end of the century, a comprehensive set of regulations was in place in England that affected all industries.
A similar system with certain national differences was implemented in other industrializing countries in the latter part of the 19th century and the early 20th century.
Individual labour law[ edit ] Main articles: Employment contract and At-will employment The basic feature of labour law in almost every country is that the rights and obligations of the worker and the employer are mediated through a contract of employment between the two.
This has been the case since the collapse of feudalism. Many contract terms and conditions are covered by legislation or common law. In the US for example, the majority of state laws allow for employment to be "at will"meaning the employer can terminate an employee from a position for any reason, so long as the reason is not explicitly prohibited, [a] and, conversely, an employee may quit at any time, for any reason or for no reasonand is not required to give notice.
One example of employment terms in many countries  is the duty to provide written particulars of employment with the essentialia negotii Latin for "essential terms" to an employee. This aims to allow the employee to know concretely what to expect and what is expected. It covers items including compensationholiday and illness rightsnotice in the event of dismissal and job description.
The contract is subject to various legal provisions.
An employer may not legally offer a contract that pays the worker less than a minimum wage. An employee may not agree to a contract that allows an employer to dismiss them for illegal reasons.
Minimum wage Many jurisdictions define the minimum amount that a worker can be paid per hour. Each country sets its own minimum wage laws and regulations, and while a majority of industrialized countries has a minimum wage, many developing countries do not.
Minimum wages are regulated and stipulated in some countries that lack explicit laws. In Sweden minimum wages are negotiated between the labour market parties unions and employer organizations through collective agreements that also cover non-union workers at workplaces with collective agreements.
At workplaces without collective agreements there exist no minimum wages. Non-organized employers can sign substitute agreements directly with trade unions but far from all do.
The Swedish case illustrates that in countries without statutory regulation will part of the labour market do not have regulated minimum wages, as self-regulation only applies to workplaces and employees covered by collective agreements in Sweden about 90 per cent of employees.
Living wage The living wage is higher than the minimum wage and is designed that a full-time worker would be able to support themselves and a small family at that wage.Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
Collective labour law relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and union. Labour Employment Rights | Free Employment Law Essay Labour law also known as employment law deals with the body of laws, administrative rulings and precedents which addresses the legal rights of and restrictions on working people and their organizations 1.
Say's Law and Supply Side Economics. It should be known that at the beginning of a dynasty, taxation yields a large revenue from small assessments.
Child Labor Laws This Essay Child Labor Laws and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on ph-vs.com Autor: review • June 24, • Essay • 1, Words (6 Pages) • 1, Views.
March 1, , AM EST For a decade and a half, the big chocolate makers have promised to end child labor in their industry—and have spent tens of millions of dollars in the effort. Browse and subscribe to RSS feeds of Harvard University Press titles by subject, library, publishing partner, or series, and see a list of featured books and collections.