Questions Environmental Awareness - Naturalist Intelligence Environment is the area in which we live and share. The thin layer of air that surrounds our planet that supports life. Humans are the only kind of life that we know of that exists in our universe.
We will review them briefly, to provide not only a classification of general value, but also an appreciation of the nature of the problem and the challenges that face us. Overt Disasters Overt disasters are environmental releases which leave no ambiguity about their sources and their potential harm.
Examples are Seveso, Bhopal and Chernobyl. Seveso plays the role of prototype for chemical industrial disasters Homberger et al. The accident took place on 10 July in the Seveso area, close to Milan, Italy, in a plant where trichlorophenol was produced, and it caused the contamination of several square kilometres of populated countryside by the powerfully toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin TCDD.
More than people were evacuated, and restrictions were applied to another 30, inhabitants. The most clearly established health effect was chloracne, but the picture of health consequences possibly linked to this incident has not yet been completed Bruzzi ; Pesatori Bhopal represents, probably, the worst chemical industrial disaster ever Das a, b; Friedrich Naumann Foundation ; Tachakra On the night of 2 Decembera gas leak caused a deadly cloud to spread over the city of Bhopal, in central India, leaving thousands dead and hundreds of thousands injured in the space of a few hours.
The accident occurred because of a runaway reaction in one of the tanks in which methyl isocyanate MIC was stored. The concrete storage tank, containing some 42 tons of this compound, which was used to manufacture pesticides, burst open and vented MIC and other breakdown chemicals into the air.
Slow-Onset Disasters Slow-onset disasters may become apparent only because human targets happen to be on the release path, or because, as time passes, some environmental evidence of a threat from noxious materials crops up. In unusual neurological disorders began to strike people living in fishing villages along Minamata Bay, Japan.
After numerous investigations, poisoned fish emerged as the probable culprit, and in the disease was produced experimentally by feeding cats with fish caught in the bay. The following year, the suggestion was put forward that the clinical picture of kibyo, which included polyneuritis, cerebellar ataxia and cortical blindness, was similar to that due to poisoning by alkyl mercury compounds.
A source of organic mercury had to be sought, and it was eventually found in a factory discharging its effluent into Minamata Bay.
The area had been used as a chemical and municipal disposal site over a period of about 30 years, until Homes were later built next to the landfill.
In the late s, there were complaints of chemical odours in home basements, and chemical leaching in areas surrounding the site began to be reported with increasing frequency over time.
In the s, residents began to fear that a serious threat to their health could arise, and this shared perception prompted environmental and health investigations to be carried out. None of the published studies could conclusively support a causal link between exposure to chemicals at the disposal site and adverse health effects among the residents.
Yet, there is no doubt that serious social and psychological consequences have resulted among the population in the area, particularly those who were evacuated Holden Mass Food Poisonings Outbreaks of food poisoning can be caused by toxic chemicals released into the environment through the use of chemicals in the handling and processing of food.
In Mayan outbreak of a previously unknown syndrome began to appear in the working-class suburbs of Madrid. Over 20, persons were ultimately involved. By Junepatients had died around 16 deaths per 1, cases. Initially, the clinical features included interstitial pneumonitis, diverse skin rashes, lymphadenopathies, intense eosinophilia, and gastro-intestinal symptoms.
Nearly one-fourth of those who survived the acute phase required later hospitalization for neuromuscular alterations. One month after the occurrence of the first cases, the illness was found to be associated with the consumption of inexpensive denatured rapeseed oil, sold in unlabelled plastic containers and usually acquired from itinerant salesmen.
The warning issued by the Spanish government against the consumption of the suspected oil caused a dramatic fall in the number of hospitalizations from toxic pneumonitis Gilsanz et al. Polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs were involved in other widely reported accidental mass food poisonings in Japan Masuda and Yoshimura and in Taiwan Chen et al.
On 1 Novembershortly after midnight, a fire developed in a warehouse operated by the multinational pharmaceutical company Sandoz in Schweizerhalle, 10 km southeast of Basel, and some 30 tons of the chemicals stored in the warehouse were drained along with water from the fire-fighting into the nearby River Rhine.
Severe ecological damage occurred over a length of about km. Apart from symptoms of irritation reported in the parts of the Basel area reached by gases and vapours produced by the fire, no cases of serious illness were reported.contamination of air, water, or soil by substances that are harmful to living organisms.
Pollution can occur naturally, for example through volcanic eruptions, or as the result of human activities, such as the spilling of oil or disposal of industrial waste. Chinese pollution a rising health threat One of the most common sources of mercury contamination is coal-burning power plants.
By bringing the clean-burning advances from the United States. - Problems Caused By Air Pollution Some people think that air pollution is not harming the earth or the people, but it is doing worse, by killing the earth and getting people sick.
"Air pollutants," according to Gay, "are known to cause respiratory diseases, cancer, and other serious illnesses" (12). "Clearly, the cheating and lax enforcement are needlessly harming children all over the United States.
"If they cannot be trusted to protect little kids from lead in drinking water, what on Earth. Today, pollution levels in many areas of the United States exceed national air quality standards for at least one of the six common pollutants: Although levels of particle pollution and ground-level ozone pollution are substantially lower than in the past, levels are unhealthy in numerous areas of the country.
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