The wealthy and the powerful, middling and poor whites, Native Americans, free and enslaved African Americans, influential and poor women:
With the capital in Charleston, Upcountry citizens had to travel two days simply to reach state government offices and state courts.
The town of Columbia, South Carolinathe first city in America to take that name, was planned and erected. Inthe state's politicians moved in, although state offices remained in Charleston until The Lowcountry and Upcountry even had separate treasury offices with separate treasurers.
This made it possible to transport goods directly from the new capital to Charleston.
Settled first because of its coastal access, the Lowcountry had the greater population. It had achieved early economic dominance because of wealth derived from the cultivation of both rice and long-staple cottona major crop.
This was easier to process by hand than short-staple cotton. In the Upcountry's soil, only short-staple cotton could be cultivated. It was extremely labor-intensive to process by hand. InEli Whitney 's invention of the cotton gin made processing of short-staple cotton economically viable.
Upcountry landowners began to increase their cultivation of cotton and to import increased numbers of enslaved Africans and free blacks to raise and process the crops. The Upcountry developed its own wealthy planter class and began to work with Lowcountry planters to protect the institution of slavery.
The state's over-reliance on cotton in its economy paved the way for post-Civil War poverty in three ways: From to nearlywhites left the state, mostly for Deep South states and frontier opportunities.
Many of them took enslaved African-Americans with them; other slaves were sold to traders for plantations in the Deep South. Nullification Crisis An image of The Compromise Tariff of that would lower rates on tariffs over 10 years in an agreement between John C.
Calhoun and Henry Clay. InBritish ships plundered American ships, inspiring outraged "War Hawk" representatives into declaring the War of During the war, tariffs on imported goods were raised to support America's military efforts. Afterward, as the North began to create manufacturing centers, Northern lawmakers passed higher taxes on imports to protect the new industries.
Because the South had an agricultural economy, it did not benefit from the tariffs and believed they interfered with the South's trade with Great Britain and Europe based on cotton and rice.
In the s, many South Carolinians began to talk of seceding from the union to operate as an independent state with trade laws tailored to its own best interests. Even South Carolina-born John C.
Calhoun, who had begun as a Federalist favoring a strong centralized government, began to change his views. He believed rights of his home state were being trampled for the "good" of the North, though he also recognized the political dangers of secession.
InCalhoun decided upon the primacy of " states' rights ", a doctrine which he would support for the rest of his life. He believed that constitutionally, the state government of each state had more power within that state than did the federal government.
Consequently, if a state deemed it necessary, it had the right to "nullify" any federal law within its boundaries.
To most South Carolinians, this sounded like a reasonable compromise. Some in the state, such as Joel J. Petigrubelieved that while a state had the full right to secede from the Union if it chose, it had no right, as long as it remained part of the Union, to nullify a federal law.
The federal government believed the concept of nullification was as an attack on its powers. When inSouth Carolina's government quickly "nullified" the hated tariffs passed by the full Congress, President Andrew Jackson declared this an act of open rebellion and ordered U.
In DecemberCalhoun resigned as Jackson's vice president. He was the only vice president to resign until Spiro Agnew did so, years later. Calhoun planned to become a senator in South Carolina to stop its run toward secession.
He wanted to work on solving the problems that troubled his fellow Carolinians.Home. Selected portions of: THE MOUNT SAVAGE IRON WORKS, MOUNT SAVAGE, MARYLAND. A CASE STUDY IN PRE-CIVIL WAR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT by Jay D.
Allen. Missouri's largest lake has 1, miles of shoreline—and just about as many ways to get out and enjoy it. Lake of the Ozarks was formed in , with the completion of Bagnell Dam. Since then, Bagnell Dam Boulevard, known as "the Strip," has evolved into a colorful kitsch-central, with fudge shops, old-time photo studios and souvenir shops.
A Pictorial History of Flatboats on the Western Rivers. 'Flatboat on the Mississippi' Quote: ~ Throughout the Ohio Valley in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, frontier farmers found themselves with agricultural surpluses, forests full of boatbuilding materials, and navigable creeks and rivers within a .
Along time coming but here’s the short story. robin branda. My Daddy’s and his Daddy’s Farm. It was a cold February in south Georgia when the last wall of a ,square-foot machinery and boiler company went up about yards from the muddy Reed Creek trail .
The history of the Southern United States reaches back hundreds of years and includes the Mississippian people, well known for their mound ph-vs.coman history in the region began in the very earliest days of the exploration and colonization of North America.
Spain, France, and England eventually explored and claimed parts of what is now the Southern United States, and the cultural.
Much of the antebellum South was rural and, in line with the plantation system, largely agricultural. With the exception of New Orleans and Baltimore, the slave states had no large cities, and the urban population of the South could not compare to that of the Northeast or even that of the agrarian West.